Q 1: What are the types of Tawhid (monotheism) and what is the definition of each type?
A: There are three types of Tawhid: Tawhid-ul-Rububiyyah (Oneness of Allah’s Lordship), Tawhid-ul-Uluhiyyah (Oneness of Worship) and Tawhid-ul-Asma’ wal-Sifat (Oneness of Allah’s Names and Attributes).
Tawhid-ul-Rububiyyah is testifying that Allah alone is the Creator, the Sustainer, the Giver and the Taker of life, and the Controller of all affairs in the dominion of the heavens and the earth. It also means attributing Governance and Legislation only to Allah, through sending His Messengers and revelation of His Books. Allah says (what means): Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment. Blessed is Allâh, the Lord of the ‘Alamîn (mankind, jinn and all that exists)! (Surah Al-A‘raf, 7: 54).
Tawhid-ul-Uluhiyyah is the worship of Allah alone; nothing else is to be worshipped, invoked, or sought for help. Vows and sacrificial animals must be dedicated exclusively to Him. Allah states: Say (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم): “Verily, my Salât (prayer), my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allâh, the Lord of the ‘Alamîn (mankind, jinn and all that exists). “He has no partner. And of this I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims.” (Surah Al-An‘am, 6: 162-163). He also states: Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only).(Surah Al-Kawthar, 108: 2).
Tawhid-ul-Asma’ wal-Sifat means describing Allah the way He has described Himself, and the way His Messenger (peace be upon him) described Him; and naming Allah with the Names that He has named Himself with, and His Messenger (peace be upon him) named Him with, in the Sahih (authentic) Hadiths, without Tashbih (comparison), Tamthil (likening Allah’s Attributes to those of His Creation), Ta’wil (allegorical interpretation) or Ta‘til (denial of Allah’s Attributes).
May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. (Surah Al-Shura, 42: 11).